Calisthenics: Types and Benefits

Calisthenics is a form of exercise that uses the weight of one’s own body to improve strength, flexibility, and endurance. It is a form of resistance training that requires little to no equipment and can be performed almost anywhere. Examples of calisthenics exercises include push-ups, squats, lunges, burpees, and planks.

Calisthenics has been around for centuries, dating back to ancient Greece, where it was used as a training method for athletes. Today, calisthenics has gained popularity as a form of exercise for people of all ages and fitness levels. It is an effective way to improve overall fitness, increase muscle tone, and enhance physical performance. Calisthenics exercises are typically bodyweight movements that target specific
muscle groups. These exercises can be modified to suit an individual’s fitness level and can be performed at various intensities to achieve different fitness goals.

Here are some common types of calisthenics:

1. Calisthenics Lunges:

Lunges are a common calisthenics exercise that primarily work the muscles in the lower body, including the quadriceps, hamstrings, glutes, and calves.

To perform a lunge:

  1. Start by standing with your feet hip-width apart and your hands on your hips or by your sides.
  2. Take a big step forward with one foot, keeping your knee directly over your ankle and your other foot planted behind you.
  3. Lower your body towards the ground by bending your front knee and keeping your back knee straight, while keeping your torso upright. Your back knee should hover just above the ground.
  4. Push through your front heel to return to standing, then repeat the movement on the opposite leg.

Lunges can be modified in various ways to increase or decrease their difficulty, such as by holding weights or increasing the range of motion. They can also be combined with other calisthenics exercises to create a full-body workout.

2. Calisthenics Planks:

Planks are a type of calisthenics exercise that focuses on building core strength.

To perform a plank:

  1. Start in a push-up position, but instead of lowering yourself to the ground, you hold your body in a straight line, with your forearms and toes on the ground.
  2. Your body should form a straight line from your head to your heels, with your core engaged and your glutes and legs working to keep your body stable.

Planks are an excellent exercise for strengthening the muscles of the core, including the rectus abdominis, obliques, and transverse abdominis. They also work the muscles of the shoulders, chest, and back, as well as the glutes and legs, making them a full-body exercise. Planks can be performed for a set amount of time, or for a specific number of reps, and can be modified for beginners or advanced athletes.


3. Calisthenics Pull Ups:

 Pull-ups are one of the most effective calisthenics exercises for building upper body strength, particularly in the back, shoulders, and arms.
To perform a pull-up, you should follow these steps:

1. Find a pull-up bar or a sturdy horizontal surface that can support your weight.
2. Grip the bar with your palms facing away from your body and your hands shoulder-width apart.
3. Hang from the bar while fully extending your arms and lift your feet off the ground.
4. Engage your back muscles and pull your body up towards the bar, keeping your elbows close to your body.
5. Once your chin is above the bar, pause for a moment and then lower yourself back down to the starting position.
6. Repeat for desired repetitions.

If you’re new to pull-ups, you may want to start with assisted pull-ups, using a resistance band or an assisted pull-up machine. Gradually work your way up to doing full pull-ups with your own body weight. It’s also important to maintain proper form throughout the exercise, as this will help you avoid injury and get the most out of the exercise.

4. Calisthenics Squats:

Squats are a common calisthenics exercise that primarily targets the muscles of the lower body, including the quadriceps, hamstrings, glutes, and calves.

To perform a squat:

  1. Stand with feet shoulder-width apart while toes pointing slightly outward.
  2.  Keeping your back straight and your chest lifted, bend your knees and lower your hips as if you’re sitting back into a chair.
  3. Go as low as you can while keeping your heels on the ground and your knees behind your toes.
  4. Then, push through your heels and straighten your legs to return to the starting position.

There are many variations of squats that you can do to challenge yourself, including jump squats, pistol squats, and sumo squats. Squats are a great exercise to add to your calisthenics routine because they target multiple muscle groups and can help improve your overall fitness and athletic performance.


5. Push Ups:

Calisthenics push-ups are a type of push-up exercise that use bodyweight resistance to build
strength and muscle.

Here are some variations of calisthenics push-ups that you can try:

1. Standard Push-up: This is the most common type of push-up where you start in a plank
position and lower your chest until it touches the ground.
2. Wide Grip Push-up: With your hands placed wider than shoulder-width apart, this
variation targets your chest muscles more.
3. Diamond Push-up: Place your hands in a diamond shape with your thumbs and index
fingers touching. This focuses on the triceps and chest muscles.
4. Close Grip Push-up: Keep your hands close together, almost touching. This targets the
triceps muscles.
5. One-Arm Push-up: This is an advanced version where you do push-ups with one arm. It
requires a lot of strength and stability.
6. Plyometric Push-up: Also known as explosive push-ups, this variation involves pushing
yourself off the ground with enough force to allow your hands to leave the floor.

Remember to start with the standard push-up and gradually progress to the more challenging
variations. It’s also essential to maintain proper form, keep your core engaged, and breathe
throughout the exercise.

Benefits of Calisthenics:

Some benefits of calisthenics include:

1. Improved strength and endurance: Calisthenics can help you build strength and endurance, particularly in the muscles you use to perform the exercises.
2. Increased flexibility: Many calisthenic exercises require a full range of motion, which can help improve your flexibility.
3. Convenient and cost-effective: Calisthenics can be performed anywhere, without the need for expensive equipment or a gym membership.
4. Reduced risk of injury: Because calisthenics use your own body weight as resistance, there is less risk of injury compared to using heavy weights or machines.
5. Improved overall health: Regular calisthenics can help improve your overall health, including cardiovascular health, bone density, and joint health.

In addition to improving physical fitness, calisthenics can also provide mental benefits. It can help reduce stress and improve mood, as well as boost confidence and self-esteem.


In conclusion, calisthenics is a popular and effective form of exercise that uses bodyweight movements to build strength, flexibility, and endurance. It can be done anywhere and at any time, making it a convenient and affordable form of exercise. Calisthenics can improve overall physical fitness and provide mental benefits.

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